What is Crude Oil? - Science Plus Tech

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What is Crude Oil?

Crude oil (Also known as Petroleum "Petroleum" is a Greek word in which "Petro" is Rock and "Oleum" is Oil) is simply mixtures and complex mixtures of Hydrocarbon(Containing Hydrogen and Carbon
Also Containing Sulfur, Nitrogen,) and is also called fossil fuels.
This Crude oil is extracted from the subsurface of the earth, which is found between 800 meters to 5000 meters.
You would wonder how this oil is extracted?
Crude oil pump
Yes, it is a similar process such as for getting fresh waters from Ground Water Aquifers(Layer of rock containing lots of pore volume, in that pore volume water resides) but it is found at a lesser depth compared to freshwater or groundwater table which is about 50 m to 100m. So this Crude oil comes through the drilling process. In the same way, these Oil or gas(Hydrocarbons) are found in porous media of rock structure, beneath oil and gas layer there is also found water layer which more saline compared to groundwater aquifers. This productive zone of rock structure layer is also called Reservoirs, Oil reservoirs if oil content is more, gas reservoirs if gas content is more and similarly if the water is more it is called either water aquifers or water reservoirs.

But Time of drilling process is enormous for Oil wells as compared to home water wells, it is almost 50 - 60 times(on average) i.e For Home freshwater well it takes around 12 hours and for oil wells 25 to 30 days. For a few wells, it can also take 20 years(for example Kola Superdeep Borehole located
in Russia).

So in this way oil is extracted using Very Huge drilling rigs( Rig is structure, which has pumps, Motors, drilling equipment such as drill pipe (which is similar to pipe structure but is made of Heavy steels weighing around 24 pounds per feet) and drill bits which used to crush the rock structures beneath
the substructure.
Petrol engineer

BMW pertol pump

As the oil is extracted from subsurface this crude oil contains also impurities, some also contain heavy oil. These Heavy Oils(Crude Oils) are then distilled using boiling and catalytic fracking and
converted to Diesel, Petrol, Aviation Fuel (Fuel for Transportations).
These crude oils are also converted to synthetic liquids used for making foods( Like LPG Cylinders) Some heavy oils are also used for making Road by use of Aspahtenes (Tars Produced).
 Oil is still a primary need for many countries and it is massively contributing to the world economy.

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